How to use

On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electrical , electrotechnical and mechanical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the
Under The Ice Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.
Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.
OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the FREON12MUSEUM site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the right blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. If doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, reaching the bottom end of each page then click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the right blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, with clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

" In the world of 2000's , if we need a cold drink we might go to the refrigerator for a few ice cubes or if there is a fancy model of refrigerator available, then we might have ice water right on tap! Things weren’t always like this however, that is before modern refrigeration.

Chilling has been known for centuries as a preservative for
perishable foods. A preservative, which was only accessible in places, where people could obtain ice during the winter. In practice, ice from lakes and rivers were cut in blocks and stored in heavily insulated rooms or pits from which it was retrieved when needed for cooling.
By use of the mechanical refrigeration, cold production became easier, because the ice could now be manufactured artificially. Now ice factories popped up, where blocks of ice were produced in large-scale operations and delivered to dairies, from which the consumer could fetch ice. The ice was placed in an ice box at home in the kitchen in which it melted and cooled the contents. The principle sounds old-fashioned, but the method was actually used up until the mid-1900s.
Gradually it became possible to produce the refrigerator systems so relatively small that they could be moved to where the cold was to be used. This meant, for example, that a refrigerator system could be placed in the basement and from there the refrigerant was circulated to insulated cabinets placed in the apartments.
Danfoss supplied expansion valves to control the temperature in these refrigeration systems. The expansion valve was Danfoss’ first, largest, and most important product.

In the world of 1810 in Cuba, the ice for our iced drink would need to be imported from the New England states at more than 500 dollars per the ton – that’s a lot of 1810 money! Obviously ice is a very important thing if Boston, at the same time, exported approximately 65,000 tons of ice per year; this is before mechanical refrigeration. Ice traditionally has been very important not only in good drinks, but it has also been critical to hospitals. It is then appropriate that a doctor, Scottish Dr. John Gorrie, received the first patent for mechanical refrigeration in 1842 to help his feverish patients.

After the advent of mechanical refrigeration, the need for ice shipped from temperate climates began to drop10. By 1855 the man made ice was being used in breweries and meat plants, but the new ice machines weren’t without problems. First, the refrigerant of choice for the 19th century ice machine is ammonia, which has the drawbacks of being highly toxic, corrosive, and difficult to compress.

The net result is that the ice machines were massive (as big as a typical kitchen), steam powered (the best source of energy in the 19th century for large equipment – needing constant boiler attendance), required a lot of maintenance and were the source of industrial accidents. An alternative had to be found!

Chemists, on the job, made a technological breakthrough: Sulfur dioxide is compressed readily and has a good latent heat* of 25 kJ/mol

Chemists and physicists were able to put a kitchen sized version of the refrigerator on the market after World War One.

Unfortunately, sulfur dioxide isn’t the most pleasant refrigerant: Early refrigerators leaked and if they didn’t, sulfur dioxide is corrosive, so they soon would. Additionally, sulfur dioxide is noted for its odor.

These early refrigerants were just not satisfying the public: they wanted something that would not stink up the house, burn it down, or kill them outright! It is with this criterion in mind that Frigidaire Division of GM set out to come up with a solution. They appointed Robert McNary, Thomas Midgley and Albert Henne to the task of finding performing, inert refrigerants for use in the household. It is this team that discovered dichlorodifluoromethane as a refrigerant in 1928 ."

By the late 1930's the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of fully "hermetic" systems, in which the motor and compressor where sealed in a single steel dome, which was connected to the evaporator in a seamless, integrated design not requiring the services of a skilled, field, refrigeration mechanic. The fully hermetic design for the household cabinet refrigerator was the next evolutionary step towards improving performance, reliability and life expectancy, all of which would increase dramatically. Kelvinator made significant contribution to the development of hermetic system design, Kelvinator of Canada, Circa 1955

Technical Significance
The change in performance, reliability and life expectancy which accompanied the wing to hermetic design could scarcely be over estimated. The period of regular motor oiling, drive belt replacement and leaking compressors and tubing connectors was gone. The operating life expectancy of such systems was all of a sudden 20 years or more.

Many contemporary appliances would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components our deliberately designed to fail or manufactured with limited edition specificities.

.......The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny silly crap gadgets low price has faded from memory.....

Every OLD Refrigerator saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, Cool engineering, noises, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Thursday, November 22, 2012


This ZOPPAS is an historical Italian old fridge model which was produced at the end of the 50's in Italy during the florid economy period.

This is a heavy steel fridge machine which doesn't know age or wear in any way, it's noiseless, nice, powerful, sturdy, everlasting, faschinating......... and very capable to hold many items in it even if it isn't that big capacity model like the after models like the Zoppas "Fuoriserie" models.

With his 1/9hp 80WATTS compressor it's capable to frost deep any kind of thing fitted in it even under zero if thermostat is too cold regulated.

Seems strange but a bottle of any drink feels different when cooled in this ZOPPAS refrigerator.

The fridge is ready in less than 30min after a long stop, and it's ways more efficient than any modern cellular phone look fridge toy advertised as better than this and that.

I know some people who throwed away in working order these ZOPPAS models only because it was old or looked  old design......................... (!!!!! ??? !!!!!) .

The 1/9HP 80W compressor is the nice fascinating "Pancake" Tecumseh patent, fabricated by a long time defunct factory called "Sternette" which was located in Scotland at the time.

The pancake is a hermetic compressor and a hermetic cooling system is a system without fittings, flanges or gaskets. Everything is soldered or welded together.
The compressor, which is the heart of the cooling system, consists of a combined pump and electric motor encased in a single housing.
In addition, the compressor has an electric start and protection system.
The compressor is without stamp rings, so the seal between the piston and cylinder is established only with a clearance of few thousandths of a millimeter.
There must also be some room for an oil film to ensure wear resistance and long life.
A refrigerator cabinet (refrigerator or freezer) consists of an isolated cabinet in which is placed a cooling element or evaporator.
In a closed circuit, the compressor draws the R12 refrigerant gases from the evaporator and the heat needed for evaporation is taken from the environment, including the food inside the cabinet. In addition
to keeping food chilled / frozen, the cooling system must also remove the heat which occurs from the insulation and doorways.
But where does the heat go?
Outside the chilled room, a kind of radiator or condenser is placed, from where heat is transferred to the surrounding air. The refrigerant gases from the evaporator is sucked into the compressor
and compressed to a higher pressure and thus a temperature higher than the surrounding area, thereby the transfer of heat can take place.
At this point of the process, the refrigerant condenses and it converts from gas to liquid.
In order to maintain the necessary pressure difference between the evaporator (suction side) and condenser (pressure side), we connect those with a so-called throttling device that can consist of a capillary tube or expansion valve. Both components have the task to
inject into the evaporator the necessary volume of refrigerant.
The brain of the refrigerator cabinet is a mechanical thermostat designed to provide a start and stop to the compressor in dependence of the thermal requirements of the refrigerator
In the refrigerated room or on the evaporator, the sensor of
the thermostat is placed, whereby a signal to start or stop the
compressor in dependence of the need for cooling takes place,
since a switch contact is created inside the thermostat that can
make or break the power to the compressor.
In comparison, a car illustrates rather well the enormous demands
that are raised to a hermetic compressor. A compressor is expected
to have a lifespan of 15 years  but many compressors last twice as
long or even much longer.
If a car travels approx. 250,000 km with an average speed of
50 km/h, this is equivalent to 5,000 hours of operation. Assuming
that the compressor operates for approx. 33 percent of its life, this
means five years or 43,800 hours - then, more than eight times as
long as the car!
The 43,800 hours of operation provide approximately 7.6 billion
engine revolutions and double the number of piston rotations at
a 50 Hz network, if the compressor is driven by approx. 2,900
rev./min. While the car has had oil replaced at least 15-20 times,
the compressor, during its entire lifetime, runs on the same oil and
without the need for any kind of service.

NOTE 1: The slogan of ZOPPAS factory was "Zoppas makes them and no one destroys."..........Indeed........

NOTE 2: I Found it on a curbside in 1992, I've changes only the termostat and the door gasket.

NOTE 3: If anyone knows the exact model number feel free to post a comment here........

Many contemporary appliances would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components our deliberately designed to fail or manufactured with limited edition specificities..............................

 The history of Zoppas starts in Conegliano in 1926 when Ferdinand and his three sons Zoppas give life to the machine shop Zoppas Ferdinand & Sons snc specializes in the repair of cookers wood burning of foreign production.

In 1948 Zoppas come from the first wood-burning stoves and coal that mark the beginning of the company's growth in terms of employment, production and sales that will characterize the fifties.

In 1954, Zoppas began producing refrigerators. The employees in the workforce now exceeds 1,500. In the early sixties it expands the range of production with the washing machine.

In 1961 the former machine shop in Conegliano is transformed from a general partnership to limited company calling itself Ferdinand Zoppas SpA In 1964 Zoppas made the first dishwasher in Italian production / market (called the "Stovella"), expanding its production capacity with the creation of a new and technologically advanced plant in Susegana (Treviso Italy), in an area of over 100,000 square meters of the railway line Udine - Venice and the Pontebbana.

The economic boom years were the period of greatest expansion of Zoppas, also starting to export their products abroad, so that in 1967 the establishment of Susegana could count more than four thousand employees.

They open new branches in Padua, Florence, Milan, Turin, Naples, Bologna, Parma, Genoa, Udine, Rome, Catanzaro, Verona, Montesilvano.

The range of products Zoppas at the end of the sixties, ranging from cookers for domestic use, to large installations for kitchens of canteens and restaurants, from wood stoves, coal and electricity, refrigerators, washing machines, dishwashers, bathtubs, Bathroom with polishing. Its products were advertised on television was through the Carousel, which had the merit of spreading the slogan that still characterizes the products of the brand, "Zoppas makes them and no one destroys."

But it is precisely at this stage, in conjunction with the warm autumn, which opens the irreversible crisis of this giant of the appliance. The company is invested by financial difficulties, market, and rising of production costs.

 One false step is the purchase of a prestigious brand, the Triplex Solaro, in Lombardy, which specializes in cooking and heating, an operation with which the management hoped to call in the race group of Conegliano. Indeed, the Triplex reveals the facts a "bottomless pit" that contributes decisively to exacerbate the financial difficulties of Zoppas.

In that period also Zanussi Pordenone, the main competitor of the Italian Zoppas, is hit by financial difficulties. Faced with the very real risk that the Italian appliance industry jumped in one fell swoop, the government decided to intervene by promoting a process of integration of the industry, through the provision of a series of loans between 50 and 100 billion Lires by the IMI (Institute Mobilare Italian), which then depended on the Ministry of the Treasury, Zanussi, the leader of this aggregation process.

Still remain unclear, the phases of the cartel that led to the absorption of Zoppas by Zanussi, but it seems that the group of Pordenone had Zoppas compared to those directories favorable to be the leader of this integration process.
Zanussi Zoppas, it follows the fortunes, so in the mid-eighties the whole group was absorbed by the Italian Swedish multinational Electrolux.

ZOPPAS MOD.?? Hermetic refrigerant compressor:
Patented by TRESCO INC - Jens, Touborg

During the meetings at Tecumseh in Detroit,
Danfoss worked together with a Dane named
Jens Touborg. He had emigrated from Denmark
in 1926, and he was one of the co-owners of
the partially Tecumseh-owned development
company TRESCO that delivered the
drawings to Tecumseh. The position  and
his Danish roots  made him the natural
choice and partner for the Danes.
The ownership of Tecumseh was difficult
to figure out. Tecumseh Products was
responsible for production, while TRESCO
handled development. Between the two
companies were several other companies
with owners, who again were intertwined. The
spheres of influence were not always easy to
interpret - nor unidirectional.
Jens Touborg’s cooperation with his old fellow
compatriots had been good.

Danfoss introduced the Tecumseh compressor model
P91 on the market as type 101. The compressor with a
cooling capacity of approx.75 Watt was designed for the
large American refrigerators. On the other hand, in a very
popular, European refrigerator of 100 liters, the Pancake
compressor took approx. 12 percent of the space, which
was too much.
Therefore, it was only natural for Danfoss to examine
the possibility of redesigning the compressor to fit the
European refrigerators, but it did not succeed. The situation
was discussed with Tecumseh, who came with a proposal
for a small compressor with a 2-pole motor that provides
twice the number of turns as a 4-pole motor.
Several companies started production of compressors for
their own production of refrigerators and freezers, and the
concept to become an independent compressor supplier,
which Danfoss worked on, was new in Europe. For Danfoss,
it was also a question of striking the right balance, since the
company did not want to be seen as a competitor to the
customers purchasing products from Køleautomatik

Over the past years, many people have wondered why
Danfoss did not start a production of refrigerators and
freezers, but that would mean competing with own
customers and this was not wanted.
Tecumseh did not give Danfoss any kind of exclusive rights to produce and sell the Pancake. But Danfoss was first, and this was an advantage, Danfoss wanted to maintain its position. Already in February - less than one month after entering the agreement - the first hermetic compressor with the red Danfoss logo reached batch production. (here pictured the pot press-machine for the manufacturing of compressor pots.)

This invention relates to a hermetically sealed
compressor, and it has p
articular reference to a
compressor suitable for use in a refrigeration
system, and its coordination with the condenser
employed therein.

One purpose of the invention is to provide a
hermetic compressor, adapted to be driven by a
fractional horsepower motor, which is extremely
compact and of relatively small dimensions for
its capacity, so that, when assembled in a domes-
tic box, a greater percentage of the box volume
may be given over to food storage. Another fea-
ture in providing such a compact unit is to de-
crease the space between the heat-generating
elements of the compressor and the casing,
whereby cooling may be more readily effected.
Other aspects of the invention involve an im-
proved internal resilient mounting for the com-
pressor and motors ; provision of built-in muffler
chambers to minimize the development of noise;
and simplifications of construction and assembly
conducive to economics in manufacture. The
invention also contemplates the combination of
the compressor with a flue type condenser,
whereby the high side of the refrigeration sys-
tem may be fabricated as a unit.

The invention may be more readily understood
by a perusal of the following description of a
typical embodiment, illustrated in the accom-
panying drawings, wherein:

Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the compressor-
condenser assembly, shown as it appears when
mounted for service in a domestic refrigerator;

Fig. 2 is a rear elevation of the assembly of
Fig. 1:

Fig. 3 is a vertical section through the com-

Fig. 4 is a bottom plan of the compressor and
its internal mounting, the casing being shown
in section as indicated by the line 4—-4 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary section taken
substantially on the line 5-5 of Fig. 2; and

Fig. 6 is a fragmentary section taken on the
line S——6 of Fig. 5.

Referring flrst to Figs. 1 and 2, there is shown
9. hermetic compressor casing II provided with
diametrically opposed outstanding flanges I2,
which are bolted to short flange sections I3 and
I4 respectively of upright columns I5 and I6.
These columns are, except for the region of the
short flange sections, of angular cross section,
each having a flange I1 parallel to the short
flange sections, ‘and a flange I8 at right angles
thereto. The two facing flanges I8 of the col-
umns provide a support for a refrigerant con-
having a continuous coil of tubing consisting of
parallel transverse stretches 2| connected by re-
turn bends 22 and vertically disposed spaced fins
23. The flanges I8 may be formed with open end
slots 24 to receive the several tube stretches 2|
and thereby firmly support the condenser with
outermost edges of the flns disposed between
plumb lines passing through the front and back
surfaces of the compressor casing I I.

The column flanges I1 provide means for
mounting the assembly on the rear of a domestic
refrigerator cabinet, as schematically indicated in
Fig. 1. Herein, the dot and dash lines 25 and 28
represent the internal and external walls of the
box, and the flanges I1 are connected to the ex-
ternal wall in any suitable manner. It will be seen
that the compressor is suspended on the columns
below the condenser, and when the box is posi-
tioned close to the room wall 21, an induced draft
of cooling air will flow from the floor beneath the
compressor and up the flue-like space between
box and wall, thereby to extract heat from the
high side portions of the refrigeration system.
The refrigerant circuit is also illustrated—in
part schematically——in Figs. 1 and 2. Com-
pressed refrigerant flows from the casing II
through a discharge line 28 into the upper stretch
2I of the condenser I9, through the several con-
volutions, and thence through a liquid strainer
29 into a capillary feed tube 3| which may pass
between the box walls 25 and 26 into the refrig-
erant evaporator 32, disposed in the food storage
compartment. - Expended refrigerant vapor rc-
turns to the compressor through a suction line
33. Automatic control of the cycle of operations
is eflected in the usual manner, current being
supplied to the compressor motor through a con-
ductor cord 530.

It will be seen that the short flange sections
I3 and I4 not only provide pads for connecting
the casing II to the columns I5 and I6, but that
one of them also provides a housing for the vari-
ous electrical connections and motor auxiliaries.
In practice, the short flange sections may be
formed by welding plates to standard angle irons,
or they may be formed by cutting away excessive
portions of one flange of channel irons. The mo-
tor lead terminals 35 are brought through the
wall of the casing II adjacent one flange I2,
to project through an opening 36‘ cut in the
flange I8 of one column, as, for example, the col-
umn I5 provided with the short flange section I3.
End closure members 31 and 38 are secured be-
tween the flanges I3 and I1 adjacent the ends of
the flange I3, and a removable cover plate (not
shown) may subsequently be positioned over the
open surface shown in Fig. 1. Provision is there-
by made to locate the starting and overload rc-
lays, and points of service connections, exteriorly
of the casing, where they are readily accessible,
and withsl to enclose them against dust and un-
authorized tampering.

The casing II is formed from two sections II
and 42. substantially circular in outline and rela-
tively shallow. thus forming a generally cylin-
drical casing, wherein, in the embodiment shown,
the diameter is Ereater than the axial length.
These are welded together along abutting flanges
I3 and M, and these flanges, in the assembled
unit. as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, are vertically dis-
posed, rather than horizontally, as has hereto-
fore been common practice. The mounting
flanges I 2 are each provided with arcuate webs
II for connection to the casing section 42, the
web adjacent the terminals 35 of course being
slotted. The motor and compressor assembly is
mounted within the casing, with the motor shaft
disposed in an upright position, or at right angles
to the casing axis, as is clearly shown in Fig. 3.

This assembly comprises a substantially cir-
cular and relatively thin main
casting is pro-
vided at diametrically opposed pointswith out-
standing lugs 41, each of which is transversely
bored to accommodate mounting means, as will
presently be described. The casting 46 is cen-
trally formed with an upstanding bearing boss 48
which is axially bored to receive a main shaft 49.
The upper end of the shaft 49 receives a bored
and counterbored quill 5| whose internal shoulder
seats on the upper end of the boss 48 to provide
9. thrust and supporting hearing. The quill is
retained on the shaft by set screws 52. Lubri-
cating oil is supplied to both the radial and thrust
bearings by means of a. spiral groove 53 cut in the
shaft 48,'which is fed by splashing from oil con-
tained in the casing I I, or by other desired means.
A drain hole OI in the web of the casting 46 per-
mits oil to return to the pool beneath.
The exterior cylindrical surface of the quill 5|
serves as a supporting mandrel for the rotor 54
of an electric motor 55. the stator 56 of which is
contained in a cylindrical sleeve 51 internally
shouldered at its ends. one end of the sleeve is
positioned on a cooperatively shouldered concen-
tric rim is formed on the casting 46, thereby to
retain the motor components in operative rela-
tionship. Lead wires 59 from the motor windings
extend through a suitably located aperture SI
(Fig. 4) in the casting is, for connection to the
inner ends of the terminals 35.

The lower end of the motor shaft 49 extends
through and below the casting 48, where it is
offset to provide a crank arm 62 from which de-
pends a crank pin '63. A cylinder block 64 formed
with a cylinder 65 is secured to the lower side of
the casting is by screws 86. The cylinder is fltted
with a reciprocating piston 61 operatively con-
nected to the pin 63. As shown in Figs. 3, 4, and
6, this connection is made by a crosshead 68 into
which the pin 63 projects, and the crosshead is
guided for transverse reciprocating motion in a
slotted cylindrical yoke 69 secured to the end of
the piston 61. The crank arm 62 is provided with
a counterweight 1|.

The motor and compressor assembly is inter-
nally mounted within the casing II by a resilient
suspension cooperating with the previously re-
ferred to casting lugs 41. The casing sections
CI and 42 are each provided with spaced pad
portions 18 and 14 respectively. located radially 75
equidistant from the longitudinal axis of the
cylindrical dimension of the casing. and in an
axial horizontal plane passing therethrough.
Opposed pads may therefore be brought into
alignment when the two casing sections are

 As best shown in Figs. 4 and 5,
each pad is provided, on its inner surface, with
abutments or sockets 15 which may conveniently
be welded thereto. The ends of transverse sup-
porting rods 10 extend into and are retained by
the aligned sockets, and these rods pass through
the openings 11 in the casting lugs 41. Each rod
is surrounded by ‘a coiled spring 1!, which may
be of double conical shape. and the springs also
pass through the openings 11, and abutthe ends
of the sockets 13.

Inasmuch as the springs 18 are helical, the
openings 11 may be internally threaded, so that
the springs may be screwed into them and bind
when the major spring diameter reaches the
center of the openings. In making the assem-
bly, the casting 46, motor 55, and compressor are
put together, and the springs are positioned in
the lugs 41. The casing section 12 is then laid
on its side, as shown in Fig. 4,
and the rods 18
are placed in the sockets 15 to stand in a ver-
tical position. The springs are then pushed over
the ends of the rods until they abut the sockets,
and then the casing section 4| is placed on the
upper ends of the rods and pressed down until
the flanges I3 and u abut. This will place the
springs 18 under some compression, tending to
expand the coils within the openings 11, and
thereby preventing lateral displacement. The
small ends of the springs grip the rods 10 adja-
cent the pads 15, but at the large diameter there
is clearance, as is shown in Fig. 5. This provides
a transverse resilient suspension of the motor and
compressor, effectively supporting the asembly
in all directions.


As best shown in Figs. 4 and 6, the cylinder
block 64 is formed with laterally projecting por-
tions BI and 82, each of which is internally cored
to provide mufller chambers for both incoming
and discharged refrigerant. The suction vapors
returning through the line 33 enter the top of
the casing II and circulate around the motor,
and then enter the block 64 through a suction
pipe 83 extending from the portion 82 to a point
in the casingabove the casting I-6, and therefore
above the oil level. The pipe 83 communicates
with the cored chamber 84, and through it with
the inlet passage 85 which is drilled in the head
end of the block 64. Compressed refrigerant
flnds its way to a drilled duct 86 communicating
with a cored chamber 81 in the portion 8|, which
is also provided with an outlet fitting 83 leading
to a discharge line 89. The line 39 is coiled in
the oil bath, so that the heat of the compressed
refrigerant will aid in eliminating refrigerant
dissolved in the lubricant. The discharge line
passes through the wall of the casing section 42
for connection to the condenser, as heretofore
described. The provision of muiller chambers on
both the inlet and discharge side of- the cylinder,
and the building of such chambers into the block,
greatly reduces the tendency to develop noise. and
also simplifies construction and assembly.

The ducts 85 and 86 are covered by a. valve
plate SI and -a cylinder head 92, conveniently
secured by bolts «93 to the block 64. The head
92 is provided with an internal wall 94 abutting
the plate 9! between its inlet and outlet ports
95 and 80. The plate is also provided with in.
wardly and outwardly opening valve leaves for
the ports, and with openings 91 and 98 register-
ing with the ducts 85 and 86.

It is believed that the operation will be readily
apparent to those skilled in the art from the
foregoing description. ‘When current is supplied
to the motor 55 in response to an increase in the
low side pressure in the evaporator, the piston 61
is reciprocated to draw refrigerant vapor through
the pipe 83 into the cylinder 65, where it is com-
pressed and then‘ discharged through the line 89,
connected to the line 28 leading to the condenser
I9. In passing through the casing ii, the re-
frigerant aids in cooling the motor, both by con-
duction with the motor parts and by convection
to the casing wall. Vibrations caused by the
motor and compressor motion are absorbed -and
dampened through the suspension on the trans-
versely disposed springs 18, while compression
noises or hisses are minimized by the two mulflers
84 and 81.

It will be seen that the springs 13 provide
metallic heat paths directly to the walls of the
casing H, further to aid in compressor cooling,
and that the external surface of the casing is
directly disposed in the path of the induced cool-
ing air flowing around the back of the cabinet
and the condenser I9. An additiona
l direct me-
tallic heat dissipating path is provided between
the flanges I 2 and the columns I 5 and I6. Due
to the internal mounting of the compressor and
motor, it is not necessary to provide resilient con-
nections between these parts.

The casing II is so devised as to fit in close
spaced relation to the compressor, thus minirniz—
ing space requirements and the internal heat path
to the casing walls. It will further be seen that
the components of the assembly are so organized
as to lend themselves to simplified manufactur-
ing operations and ease of assembly, thereby pro-
viding a highly emcient and economical unit.

While the invention has been described with
reference to a single embodiment thereof. it is
not intended to limit it to the precise details
shown and described, but to encompass all such
variations and modifications as fall within the
scope of the appended claims.

1. A
hermetic compressor comprising a_ sealed
casing formed of at least two sections each of

which is internally provided with at least two
spaced abutments, said abutments being aligned
in opposed pairs when said casing is sealed, a
substantially annular casting mounted in and
transversely of said casing, a motor and compres-
sor connected to said casting, hollow lugs formed
on the casting at spaced portions thereof and in
substantial alignment with said opposed pair of
abutments. rods extending from said abutments
and through said lugs, and coiled springs posi-
tioned around s-aid rods and engaging the abut-
ments at their ends and the internal walls of
the lugs therebetween.

2. The hermetic compressor
of claim 1, wherein
said coiled springs are of double corneal shape,
the portions thereof of maximum diameter en-
gage within the lugs, the end portions of smaller
diameter engage the rods adjacent the abut-
ments. and said springs are under compression.

3. Refrigeration apparatus comprising a her-
metic compressor having a substantially cylin-
drical casing of less axial depth than the diameter thereof, a motor and compressor assembly
resiliently mounted within the casing, motor lead
terminals extending through the arcuate wall of
the casing at one side thereof,
diametrically op-
posed webs connected to said arcuate wall and
having angularly disposed mounting flanges ex-
tending outwardly therefrom, one of said webs
being perforated to receive said terminals, sup-
porting columns connected to said web flanges,
said column connected to said one perforated
web also being perforated to receive said ter-
minals, said perforated column being formed
with outwardly extending spaced flanges partially
enclosing -said terminals, and cover means
adapted to be positioned between said flanges
further to enclose said terminals.

4. Refrigeration apparatus comprising a pair
of spaced supporting columns adapted to be posi-
tioned in a vertical position, a hermetic com-
pressor suspended. from and between said col-
umns adjacent the lower ends thereof, said com-
pressor comprising a substantially cylindrical
casing of less axial length than diameter, a
motor, compressor, and supporting casting posi-
tioned in said casing, said casting being posi-
tioned in a substantially horizontal position, di-
ametrically spaced mounting flanges connected
to the arcuate wall of said casing and to said col-
umns, spaced supporting springs for the casting
extending in a horizontal direction between end
walls of said cylindrical casing, thereby to mount
the motor and compressor and -c-asting within the
casing with the major dimension of the casing extending vertically and the minor axial dimension
extending horizontally with respect to the
supporting columns.

5. A hermetic compressor comprising a two
part sealed casing of generally cylindrical form,
a plurality of pairs of opposed abutments formed
on opposite walls of the casing, the abutments of
said pairs being respectively positioned on each
of the parts of the casing in spaced relation to
the axis thereof, an interconnected motor, supporting casting, and compressor within the casing
 in spaced relation to the inner walls thereof.
said motor having its shaft disposed normal to
the axis of the casing, supporting lugs formed on
the casting at spaced points and in line with the
opposed abutments, and coiled springs extending
from said _abutments to said lugs, said springs
extending transversely of the casting and motor
shaft and substantially parallel to the axis of the
casing and providing supporting and vibration
damping means for the motor, casting, and compressor.

This invention relates to compressors of the type adapted to the compression of refrigerant
vapor, and it is particularly concerned with a
compressor in which is incorporated a lubricant
pump to supply oil to the working parts thereof.
The present invention includes subject matter
which is also described in my prior and copend
ing application, Serial No. 51,348, filed Septem-
ber 27, 1948, and to that extent this application
may be deemed a continuation in part.

One of the problems presented in connection
with small or fractional horsepower compressors,
to be used in conventional refrigerating systems,
is the elimination of noise. Another problem is
to assure adequate supplies of lubricant to the
working parts, such as the motor shaft. It has
heretofore been proposed to include a small aux-
iliary pump in the compressor assembly to de-
liver oil to the working parts, but it has been
found, under many conditions of operation, that
a pump having adequate capacity also generated
a relatively loud noise. and thus detracted from
one of the desired attributes of the compressor.
Another problem encountered in the provision of
a lubricant pump is that many proposals require a substantial
number of additional parts, complicated porting and conduit arrangements and
the like, and thus unduly increase the cost.

According to the present invention, a lubricant
pump of high capacity, a
nd which has been
found to be substantially noiseless in operation,
is built into the compressor assembly, and is so
devised as to require substantially no additional
parts, and a minimum of machining operations.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the
pumping eifect is obtained by inclining a recip-
rocating piston-in-cylinder compressor with re-
spect to the axis of the drive shaft, and utiliz-
ing the resulting relative linear motion between
the crank pin and piston yoke to force oil into
a duct drilled in the drive shaft. Additionally,
the crank pin is also inclined to the axis of the
drive shaft, to impart an arcuate oscillatory mo-
tion to the piston about its longitudinal axis. as
well as a linear reciprocating motion. The com-
pounded motion of the piston provides a wiping
action within the cylinder, which laps or polishes
out score marks that might otherwise be formed
by adventitious dirt particles. Such motion
moreover maintains the piston in motion in at
least one direction at all times, and thus fur-
ther eliminates or reduces a noise factor which
is an incident to, or inherent in, reciprocating
pistons whose linear motion is truly or approxi
The principles of the invention, and the ad-'
vantages to be derived therefrom, will be made
apparent from the following description of a
typical embodiment, illustrated in the accom-
panying drawings, wherein:

Fig. 1 is a vertical section through a hermetic
compressor incorporating the invention;

Fig. 2 is a bottom plan;

Figs. 3 to 6 inclusive are enlarged fragmentary
horizontal sections through the cylinder and
piston assembly of the compressor, showing the
relative positions of the parts at -ninety degree
intervals during a complete revolution of the
drive shaft;

Figs. 7 ands are enlarged fragmentary ver-
tical sections through the cylinder and piston
assembly, showing the positions corresponding
to those shown in Figs. 3 and 6, respectively;

Fig. 9 is an exploded view, partly in section and
partly in elevation, of the drive shaft, crosshead.
and piston and yoke of the compressor;

Fig. 10 is an additionally enlarged bottom plan
of the crosshead; and,

Fig. 11 is a top plan of the piston and yoke

Referring primarily to Figs. 1 and 2, the com-
pressor (in common with thatvdisclosed in my
above identified prior application) comprises a
two-part casing or shell including flanged sec-
tions 2| and 22, which are relatively shallow
with respect to their diameters. and which are
welded together after assembly to provide a
hermetically sealed compressor. Within the cas-
ing are an electric motor 23, main casting 24,
and a refrigerant pump or compressor 25, all
of which. are connected together and are re-
siliently mounted in spaced relation to the cas-
ing walls. The casting 24 is generally annular in
form‘, and it is provided at diametrically op-
posed points with outstanding lugs 26, each of
which is transversely bored to receive mounting
means, as will presently be described. The cast-
ing 24 is centrally formed with an, upstanding
bearing boss 21, which is axially bored to receive
a vertically disposed main drive shaft 28, whose
ends project both above and below the boss.

The upper end of the shaft 28 receives a bored
and counterbored quill 3| provided with a sleeve
32 whose lower end is supported on the upper
end of the boss 21 through the medium of a
thrust washer 33. The sleeve is suitably con-
nected to the upper end of the shaft 28, as, for
example, by means of a press fit. A motor
rotor 34 is also press fitted into the quill 3|.
The motor stator
35 is mounted on a. shoulder 36
through the aperture 45of the casting 24 by bolts 59; A piston El is re
formed on. the periphery of the casting 2|. and it
is secured in position by any suitable means, such
as bolts, not shown. The motor lead wires 31
extend to terminals 38 which pass through the
wall of the casing section 22, and into a relay
box,39. welded to the casing. wherein the in-
dicated electrical connections may be made.
The casting 24 and the parts connected there-
to are internally mounted in the casing by a re-
silient suspension cooperating with the casting
lugs 26.
The- casing sections are each provided
with spaced padportionsll, 42, located substantially radially equidistant from the longitudinal
axis of the cylindrical dimension of the casing,
and in an axial plane parallel thereto. Opposed
pads may therefore bebrought into alignment
when the casing sections are superimposed. As
described in detail in my aforesaid copending ap
plioation, each padpis provided with an abutment
or socket 43 which is welded thereto. to receive
the ends of transversely extending spring sup-.
porting and retaining rods 44, which pass through
tapped apertures 45 in the lugs 26. Each rod is
surrounded by a coiled spring 45 which also passes

The springs 46 are both helical and cylindrical.)
and they are-screwed/into the apertures 45 to
project on each side thereof the proper distance
to center or locate the compressor assembly with-
in‘ the casing. While the springs contact the
lugs, they do not contact the rods 44 except at
the ends thereof,.where they are bent into a gen-
erally hairpin convolution togrip the rod on op-
posite sides, and around a small key 41 formed
on either end thereof. These keys prevent rota.-
tion of the springs and rods relative to each other
after the assembly has been made and adjust-
ed. -The casing section 22 is also provided with
depending brackets 48, disposed above the lugs
26. to whichvare connected one end of. tension
springs 49, whose opposite ends engage openings
formed in ears 5| of the lugs 26. The springs
49 absorb some of the weight of the assembly,
and,,in conjunction with the springs 46. permit
the resilient mounting of the parts in such fash-
ion that forced vibrations, and resulting noise, is

The refrigerant pump unit 25 comprises a.cylinder block 55 havinga cylinder, 56 bored therein,
 the head end of which is covered by a valve
plate 51 and-cylinder head 58. Inasmuch as the
details of the ‘valves form no part of.the present
invention, and suitable structure is more _fully
described in my prior application, a further de-
scription of these parts appears unnecessary.
The cylinder block 55 is secured to the under side
ciprocably mounted in the cylinder 56 by means
of an offset or crank portion 62 formed on the
lower end of the main shaft 28, and below a
crank‘ arm 63 which carries a. counterweight 64.
The crank 62 rotatably fits into a diametrical
bore 85 of a cylindrical crosshead 56, which is
carried for transverse reciprocatory movement in
a yoke 61,/integrally connected at right angles to
the crank end of the piston 6|, As thus far de-
scribed, the driving connection will be recognized
as of the Scotch yoke type, but it involves cer-
tain important variations from the .conventionaL
yoke drive, as will presently be explained.
In operation, rotation of the motor rotor 34
causes reciprocation of the piston 6|. to draw returning refrigerant vapors into the cylinder 56
on the suction stroke, and to discharge com-
pressed refrigerant on the compression stroke.

The returning vapors
line at the top of the casing, flow around ‘the
motor to absorb-some of its heat. and enter the
cylinder head 58 through a suction tube 12 which
extendsupwardly in the casing and above the
oil level, therein. The discharged vapors pass
through a discharge line 13 which is advanta-
geously coiled in the oil bath at the bottom of the
casing,’ and which terminates in an outlet line
14 passing through the casing wall. _The com-
pressor is adapted to be included in the usual
compressor - condenser - expander refrigeration
system. which needs no description here.
Considering furtherthe cylinder and piston and drive assembly, it will be seen, in Fig. 1 and‘ some
-of the enlarged views, that the cylinder block 55
and the cylinder bore 58, are inclined at a slight
angle to the horizontal plane. Similarly, while
the motor and bearing portions of the main shaft
28 are disposed in a vertical plane, the crank
portion 62 is inclined to the vertical plane. The
piston‘ BI is, of course, also necessarily inclined
to the horizontal plane, a
nd it follows that it is
not at right angles to the vertical. These in-
clinations depart from customary practice, and
lead to the improvements with which the pres-
ent invention is primarily concerned. It may
here be noted that while this angularity may be
varied within reasonably wide limits, the draw-
ings have here been laid out for deviations from
the horizontal and vertical reference lines or
planes for a fairly small angle, _between two and
three degrees. This is sufficient for a compressor
subject to the intended service of the illustrated

As will be readily understood by those con-
versant with the Sootch yoke linkage, rotation
of the drive shaft 28 about its own axis causes
an.orbital movement of the ‘crank pin 62, which,
in the usualor conventional case,,describes or
sweeps out a right cylinder whose axis coincides
with the axis of the drive shaft. The crank pin
62 rotatably fits in the bore 65 of the crosshead
66,’ and the crosshead is guided in the bore of
the transverse yoke 61. During one revolution
of the drive shaft, the crosshead will therefore
move lengthwise of the yoke with a linear recip-
rocatory motion, and the crosshead, yoke, and
piston will also have a linear reciprocatory mo-
tion with respect to the longitudinal axis of the
cylinder 56. The successive positions assumed by
these parts are shown in Figs. 3 to .6, wherein
Fig. 3 represents the end of the suction stroke
and the beginning of the compression stroke.
Counterclockwise rotation as viewed. in these
figures, will be assumed throughout the balance
of the description. The piston BI is then begin-
ning to move to the left, and the crosshead 56
is- moving in an upward direction. -

In the ensuing ninety degrees of rotation, the
displacement o
f the crank pin 62 has moved the
crosshead 66 upwardly to the limit of its travel
in this direction, and has also moved the piston
6| about half way in its stroke into the cylinder
56. shown in Fig. 31. In Fig. 5, the end
of the compression stroke has been reached, and
the displacement of the crankpin has caused the
crosshead to recede from the upper end of its
travel, and to be again in a central position.
Fig. 6 illustrates the positions reached in the next
ninety degrees of rotation, when the piston Si, is
partially withdrawn, and the crosshead _ has
reached the lower limit of its transverse motion.
The motion of the crank pin transversely of the
yoke 61 is made possible by a slot 18 formed in
enter through a suction

the upper portion ofthe yoke, and the length
of the pin 62 is such as to terminate adjacent the
innermost chord taken through the arcs of inter-
section of the. bore 65 and the periphery Of the
crosshead 86.
 As noted, the piston SI and crank pin 62 are
inclined to the normal axes, and therefore the
arcuate motion of the crank pin is not such as to
describe a cylinder, but rather a cone or frustum
of a cone. That is to say, the inclination of the
crank pin 62 causes its lower extremity to sweep
through a circle of larger diameter than that
traced by its upper end. As the crank pin 62 is
fitted uniformly in the cylindrical bore 65 of the
crosshead 68, it will be apparent that the cross-
head will have a rocking or pendulum like mo-
tion about the vertical axis as it moves from-one
end of the yoke to the other. Similarly, the in-
clination and motion of the crank pin will cause
the yoke 61, and the connected piston Bl, to have
a rocking motion about the vertical axis. In
Figs. 3 to 6, wherein the vertical axis is normal
to the plane of the paper, the rocking. motion of
the piston BI is the same as an arcuate oscillatory
motion of the piston about the axis of the cylin-
der 56, and it is herein black dots
on the piston surface, which show the displace.-
ment on either side of the center line. If these
successive dot positions were ,connected,_ they
would outline a relatively long oval or‘ ellipse. '
The effect of the combined linear and arcuate
movements of the crosshead in the yoke, and the
piston in the cylinder, is to change the alignment
which, in association with the bearing surface
of the sleeve 21, provides a passageway through
which-oil may be delivered to the bearing, and
also ‘to the top of the rotor quill 3!. Oil dis-
charged from the top of the shaft 28 may drain
‘down through the’ rotor. clearance gap into ducts
82, 83',‘formed in the casting 24 (see also Fig. 1),
for delivery to the -exposed portion of the piston
6|." The excess" oil falls by gravity to the oil
bath contained in‘ the bottom or crankcase por-
tion of the casing.
Thelower and crank pin portions of the shaft
28 are longitudinally drilled to provide a duct
between longitudinal lines of ‘contact between
the pairs of arcuate surfaces, thus producing A
wiping or lapping action Which otherwise would  not be obtained.
 This motion is beneficial, as it
serves to effect a better distribution of the oil
films between the surfaces, and it increases the
resistance to the introduction of small dirt particles which would cause scoring.
Another important feature of the compound
motions of linear reciprocation and arcuate oscillation is that the piston is always in motion in
at least one direction, either axially of or trans-
verse to the bore of the cylinder 56. As will ap-
pear from the motion diagrams, Figs. 3 to 6. the
piston is at mid-stroke when the. crosshead 66 is
at the end of its stroke, and vice versa. . Stated
otherwise, the linear and arcuate motions are
out of phase, and, in this particular case, by approximately 180°.
Inasmuch as the end of the
displacement or stroke of a body having har-
monic motion is accompanied by a reversal of di-
rection of motion, the body, at the instant of re-
versal, has a zero velocity, while maximum veloc-
ity occurs as it passes through its central. point
of reference. Thus, when the piston 6| reaches
the end of its linear movement or stroke, its arcu-
ate velocity is at its maximum, and the‘ piston
is therefore always in motion. It has heretofore
been observed that the reversal of stroke of a
conventional piston-in-cylinder compressor has
been accompanied by a slight hiss or noise, which
was considered to be inherent and irreducible.
It has now been discovered that by imparting the
described compound and continuous motion to
the piston, this source of noise is eliminated.

As heretofore noted, the inclination of the pis-
ton with respect to the horizontal axis is also
are ‘required. Considering particularly Fig. '9 the drive shaft
28 is formed on its periphery
above the crank arm 63 with a spiral groove
 utilized to provide a simple and effective lubricant pump, in which no additional moving parts
 which communicates with the groove
through a radial port 85. "The crank pin 82 is
formed with a radial slot 86 which intersects the
duct 84, and the lower‘ end of the duct, below the
slot 89, is‘ stopped off with a plug 81 after the
shaft has been machined. ‘The crosshead 66 is
formed with ‘a; transverse -or vertical groove 88,
which maybe machined» in the wall of the bore
65 from one end thereof a‘ suflicient distance to
overlap the radial slot 86 when the parts are as-
sembled, 'The crossheadnfifi ‘is also formed with
an ‘angularly ‘inclined, transversely disposed or
tangential slot"89,~ disposed on the external sur-
face and ‘extending upwardly from the bottom of
the bore 65, and in spaced relation to the groove
88. ‘An oil groove 90 is also formed circumfer-
entially of the crosshead 86, to supply lubricant
to the bearing surface against the yoke 81.

The yoke. 61 is formed with a port 9|, posi-
tioned above the lower trace of the yoke, and
which is in open communication with a flattened
suction orriser tube 92, welded to the bottom of
the yoke, the lower end of which is adapted to
dip_into the oil bath. Both the tangential slot
89 and the,oil groove 90 are adapted to pass over
the port 9| when the compressor is operated.

‘It will now be apparent
that, as the piston 6|
reciprocates, its yoke end moves downwardly with
respect to the crank pin 62 on the suction stroke,
andupwardly on the compression stroke, due to
the inclination of the piston with respect to the
. horizontal. Inasmuch as the lower end of the
crankpin 62 is adjacent the junction of the bore
65 with the wall of the crosshead 66, there is a
small well or reservoir 93 constituting, in effect,
a cylinder or pump chamber in which the crank
pin reciprocates as a piston. Referring again to
Figs. ‘3 -to‘ 8, it will be seen that, as the piston
6| , reaches the end of its compression stroke
(_Fig. 5-) the angularslot 89 in the crosshead 68
is; about to register with the port 9| in the yoke
61, and thus place the slot 89 in fluid communication with the oil bath. As thehshaft 28 continues,
‘to rotate, this communication becomes fully established, as ‘shown in Fig. 6, and the reservoir
93 also is in fluid communication with the oil
bath, since the slot 89 extends downwardly there-
to, as is clearly shown in Fig. 8. The cross-
head is moving downwardly over the crank pin
62, to increase the volume of the reservoir 93, and
the suction effect causes oil to flow into the res-
ervoir as long as the fluid passageway is open.
During this same time, the trailing edge of the
radial slot 86 in the crank pin 62 has moved past
the longitudinal duct 88 in the crosshead, thus
closing off this passage, and preventing flow of
oil therethrough.
-As the crosshead 66 moves
back to its central position the port 9! progres-
sively closes,' and is out off by the body of the
crosshead as the end of the suction stroke is
reached, as shown in‘ Fig. 3. As the compression
stroke begins, the leading edge of the_radial slot
86 opens the duct 88, and the pressure created
by the upward motion of the crosshead 66- with
respect to the crank pin 62 forces the oil into
the radial slot 86, and thence into" the longitud-
inal duct 84. The lubricant is then distributed
asheretofore described.

It has heretofore been stated that the actual
inclination of the piston to the horizontal. and
the crank pin to the vertical, may be a small
angle of only two or three degrees. Preferably,
both piston and crank pin are inclined, and they
are inclined equally with respect to their ref-
erence axes
 For example, further consideration
of the Figures will show that, with equal angular-
ities, the axes of the crank pin and the piston are.
However, this condition need not .
be fulfilled within the broader principles of the
at right angles to each other when the crank pin
has revolved 180° from the position shown in
Fig. 1. Thus, the angularities become additive
on the suction stroke, and the small angularity of
each provides a displacement for the oil pump
which would not otherwise be obtained if the
crank pin axis were also vertical.
the angularity of the piston would be increased
to obtain the same displacement
be vertical references to vertical and horizontal planes and
axes are made for convenience of description, and
not to -limit the invention to compressors mount-
ed in one specific manner.

It will thus be seen that a positive displacement oil pump has been formed from the basic
elements of the driving connection itself, that is.
the drive shaft, crosshead, and yoke, and in
which no additional moving parts are required.
In my prior application, a system of porting
through the driving elements is also disclosed, but
with added Darts to provide a pump cylinder and
piston. As with the lubricant pump of myprior
invention, the present pump is so organized as to
have its suction and pressure strokes coincide
substantially with the suction and compression
strokes of the refrigerant compressor.

The present pump is quite noiseless in opera-
tion. and, while the displacements are numer-
ically small, they are suflicient to supply adequate
quantities of oil to the bearings and other work-
ing parts. In fact, the present pump delivers
enough oil that a portion of it may be sprayed
against the casing walls to aid in cooling. being
thrown oil’ centrifugally from the exposed upper
end of the groove 8|, while the remaining por-
tion drips through the rotor gap to lubricate the
piston. The provision of the depending suction
or riser tube 92 on the yoke 81 makes it unneces-
sary to submerge the yoke and cylinder block in
the lubricant.

While the invention has been described with
respect to a single embodiment thereof, it will
be apparent to those skilled in the art that nu-
merous modifications and alterations may be
made without departure from its principles. It
is therefore intended that the invention should
be accorded a scope commensurate with that
expressed inthe following claims.

 1. A compressor having a crankcase portion
and a cylinder block formed with a cylinder bore,
a piston reciprocably mounted in the cylinder
bore and provided with a transversely disposed
yoke at the crankcase end thereof, a crosshead
slidably mounted in the yoke and formed with
In this case.

When a larger
inclination of the piston is desired, and noise is.
not so much of a factor, the crank pin axis may
It will, of course, be understood that
a diametrical bore, a drive shaft having a crank
pin portion rotatably mounted in the crosshead
bore. a bearing for rotatably mounting the drive
shaft for rotation about its own axis, said cyl-
inder bore and piston_ being angularly inclined
with respect to the axis of the drive shaft,.said
yoke being positioned with its axis, at right angles
to the axis of the piston, whereby upon rotation
of the drive shaft the crank pin and crosshead
bore havelinear movement relative to each other,
an oil duct extending longitudinally of the crank
pin to the drive shaft bearing. an oil bath in
the crank case portion, and ports formed in the
crosshead adapted to be alternately opened and
closed in timed relation to the linear movement
of ‘the crosshead to alternately subject oil in the
oil duct to pressure and to replenish oil dis-
charged from the duct fr_om the oil bath.

2. A compressor having a reciprocable piston
mounted in a fixed cylinder, said compressor
having a crank case portion adapted to contain
a bath of_ oil, a. drive shaft formed with a crank
pin inclined to the axis of the drive shaft, a hear-
ing for supporting the drive shaft for rotation
about its own axis, a crosshead having a—diamet-
rical bore in which the crank pin is rotatably

mounted, a yoke surrounding the crosshead and-

connected to the piston with the axes of the
piston and yoke at right angles to each other,
said yoke having an imperforate wall beneath
the bore of the crank pin, said piston having its
axis inclined to the axis of the drive shaft,
whereby upon rotation of the drive shaft the
piston will reciprocate linearly in the cylinder
and will also oscillate about its own axis and
said crosshead will reciprocate linearly in the
yoke, oscillate about its own axis, and reciprocate
linearly of the crank pin to change the volume
of the space between the end
of the crank pin
and said imperforate wall of the yoke, porting
means formed in the crosshead and adapted,
when said space is increasing in volume, to place
said space in communication with the oil bath,
an oil duct extending longitudinally of the crank
pin to said bearing, and additional porting means
between the pin and duct to place said duct in
communication with said space when it, is de-
creasing in volume.

3. In a compressor having a
supporting casting
and a drive shaft rotatably mounted in a bearing
in‘ the cast-ing for rotation about its own axis,
a cylinder block formed with a cylinder bore con-
nected to the casting, a reciprocable piston in
the cylinder bore, said piston and bore having a
common axis inclined to the axis/ of the drive
shaft, a yoke connected to the crank case end of
the piston, the axis of the yoke being disposed at
right angles to the axis of the piston and trans-
versely of the shaft axis, a cross head formed
with a diametrical bore slidably mounted in the
yoke, a crank pin on -the drive shaft rotatably
mounted in the crosshead bore, the end of the
crank pin terminating short of the end of the
bore to form a. reservoir between the end of said
crank pin. the wall of the bore, and the wall of
the yoke, a lubricant duct having one end adapted
to be placed in communication with the reser-
voir extending longitudinally of the crank pin
to the drive shaft bearing, valve means in the
crank pin and crosshead for establishing said
communication during one phase of rotation and
for interruptinlgsaid communication during a
successive phase, additional valve means in the
crosshead and yoke for interrupting and estab-
lishing communication between said reservoir
and the exterior of the yoke alternately to the
operation of said flrst named valve means, and
means exterior of -the yoke to supply oil to said
reservoir when said reservoir is in communication with the exterior of the yoke through said
additional valve means.
4. A combined refrigerant compressor and oil
pump comprising a cylinder and a piston recip-
rocably mounted therein, a drive shaft and a
bearing for the drive shaft. and a, Scotch yoke
connection between the shaft and piston, said
yoke comprising a yoke cylinder disposed at right
angles to the piston and connected thereto and
a cylindrical crosshead slidably mounted in the
yoke, a bore in the crosshead, a crank pin on the
drive shaft rotatably mounted in‘ the bore. said
piston being inclined to the axis of the shaft,
a casing for the piston and shaft adapted to
contain a bath of oil, ports formed in the yoke
and crosshead adapted to be aligned during one
phase of movement of the shaft and piston and
upon alignment to admit oil from the casing to
the crosshead bore, a duct extending longitudi-
nally of the crank pin to the bearing, and other
ports formed in the crosshead and crank pin
adapted during a successive phase of movement
to transfer oil from the bore to said duct and

5; In a refrigerant compressor having a reciprocable piston fitted in a fixed cylinder and a
drive shaft rotatably mounted in a fixed bearing,
2. scotch yoke connection between the shaft and
piston comprising a, cylindrical yoke connected
to the crank end of the piston at right angles
to the axis thereof and a cylindrical crosshead
reciprocably mounted in the yoke, said crosshead
being formed with a diametrical bore and said
drive shaft being formed with a crank pin rotat-
ably mounted in said bore, the axis of the piston
being inclined to the axis of the drive shaft. said
yoke being formed with an oil admission port
disposed within the outermost trace of the cross-
head bore, said crosshead being formed with a
tangential slot communicating with the bore and
adapted upon reciprocation of the crosshead to
periodically register with and be displaced from
said port, an oil duct formed in the crank pin and
extending to the bearing, a radial slot formed
in the crank pin communicating with the duct
and a groove in the bore adapted to register with
the radial slot during that phase of motion of the
crank pin and crosshead when the tangential slot
is displaced from said port.
6. In a refrigerant compressor having a recip-
rocable piston fitted in a, fixed cylinder and a
drive shaft rotatably mounted in a fixed bearing,
a Scotch yoke connection between the piston and
shaft including a cylindrical yoke connected to
the piston at right angles to the axis thereof,
a cylindrical crosshead slidably mounted in the
yoke and formed with a diametrical bore, a crank pin on the drive shaft rotatably mounted in said

Bore. said piston being inclined to the axis of
the drive shaft and said crank pin also being
inclined to the axis of the drive shaft at an angle
substantially equal to the inclination of the piston
to said shaft. an oil reservoir formed between
the end of the crank pin, crosshead bore, and yoke
surface, a crank case for the compressor con-
taining a bath of oil, and porting means formed
in the crank pin, crosshead, and yoke adapted
upon successive phases of rotative movement of
the shaft to admit oil from the crank case to the
reservoir and to transfer oil from the reservoir to
the bearing.
7. A hermetic refrigerant compressor compris-
ing a casing having a supporting casting therein,
a motor mounted on the casting. a bearing
formed in the casting and a drive shaft rotatably
mounted in the bearing, said drive shaft project-
ing beyond the bearing at each end thereof and
being formed with an oil groove, a cylinder block
mounted on the casting and formed with a, cylin-
der bore, a piston reciprocably mounted in the
cylinder bore, a cylindrical yoke connected to the
crank end of the piston at right angles thereto,
said piston and cylinder bore being inclined to
the axis of the drive shaft, "a crosshead slidably
mounted in the yoke and formed with a dia-
metrical bore, a crank pin formed on one end
of the drive shaft and extending beyond the
bearing and rotatably mounted in the crosshead
bore, a. bath of oil in the casing, an oil duct
formed in the crank pin and communicating with
the oil groove of the drive shaft, ports formed in
the yoke and crosshead adapted to register dur-
ing one phase of movement of the drive shaft
to admit oil from the oil bath to the region
between the end of the crank pin, crosshead bore.
and yoke, other ports formed in the crank pin
and crosshead adapted to place said region in
communication with said oil duct during a suc-
cessive phase of movement, said oil groove ex-
tending the full length of the drive shaft and
to the opposite end thereof beyond said bearing,
whereby oil forced into said groove may be trans-
ferred from said opposite end of the shaft to the
motor and the casing walls to absorb heat there-
from, and a drain duct in said casting adjacent
the crank end of the piston and cylinder block
to direct at least a portion of the oil to the piston.


L. Sterne & Co Ltd (refrigeration machinery manufacturers: 1882-c1960s: Glasgow, Scotland)
Louis Sterne (1835-1924) was born in Philadelphia, USA, but moved to the UK in 1865. Although he had training and experience in locomotive engineering, he had also been something of a traveller and an adventurer before that date. In 1865 he set up business as a consulting engineer in London and, at the same time, entered into a partnership with a Mr Townsend, making draw and bearing springs for railway buffers. In 1873 he went into business with one of his competitors, W S Thomson, and incorporated, in 1874 , Thomson, Sterne & Co Ltd. This company was registered in England but its manufacturing base was at the Crown Iron Works, North Woodside Road, Glasgow, Scotland, close to the centre of engineering and locomotive building in the city at that time. During the 1870s and 1880s, although the company's profits were not large, they continued to make emery wheels, emery grinding machines and railway springs.

In 1879, they started to manufacture Clerk's Patent Gas Engines in Glasgow, and by 1882 were doing well enough to purchase new premises in Lancashire, England. In the same year, Thomson retired, and the controlling interest passed to a James S Beale, who became managing director. The company now became known as L Sterne & Co Ltd and paid their first dividend at a modest 5 per cent. Samuel R Beale, son of J S Beale, became commercial manager in 1905 and, when his father died in 1912, he joined the board as general manager, under the chairmanship of Louis Sterne. At this time the company were selling, under licence, some small refrigerator machines to which S R Beale made some improvements. By 1914, refrigeration was fast becoming a major concern for the company, which obtained a contract for the Port of London Authority in 1915 and, a few years later, a contract for Clydeside Cold Storage Co Ltd. They were also involved in ice rinks, including Earls' Court and Wembley in London. In 1914 they entered the marine refrigeration business and opened an office in Liverpool.

In 1918 the company undertook a process of rationalisation. They transferred their railway and grinding wheel interests to the Universal Grinding Wheel Co Ltd, whilst maintaining financial interests in Universal. In 1921, L Chew, formerly of H J West & Co, became a director of L Sterne & Co Ltd, who used his engineering expertise to begin the manufacture of compressors in Glasgow. They continued to flourish, absorbing, the London based Blackfriars Cold Storage Co Ltd in 1923 and buying, in 1935, the Haslam Foundry & Engineering Co Ltd, which had fallen into the hands of the bank.

Management changes during these years saw Sir John F Beale, brother of S R Beale, take over as chairman when Louis Sterne died in 1924. Sir John Beale died himself in 1935 and he was succeeded as chairman by S R Beale. However, Samuel Beale moved south to England at this date to take his brother's place as chairman of Guest, Keen & Nettlefolds Ltd so that his own role became largely non-executive. Meanwhile, S R Beale's nephew, Peter Brown discovered a small automatic type of refrigerator, developed by a company called Universal Cooler Co, in Ontario. L Sterne & Co Ltd acquired the patent rights and started to market this product in the UK as the "Sternette" for domestic and household use. Samuel Beale retired in 1960 and was succeeded as chairman by his nephew, Peter Brown. The company went into liquidation in the 1960s.

Tecumseh products Company HISTORY:

It was Incorporated in 1930 as Hillsdale Machine & Tool Company, All Other Plastics Product Manufacturing;  Air-Conditioning and Warm Air Heating Equipment and Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing; Other Engine Equipment Manufacturing; Speed Changer, Industrial High-Speed Drive, and Gear Manufacturing; Pump and Pumping Equipment Manufacturing; Motor and Generator Manufacturing; Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing, Named for the legendary Shawnee chief, Tecumseh Products makes a line of hermetically sealed compressors and heat pumps for residential and commercial refrigerators and freezers, water coolers, air conditioners, dehumidifiers, and vending machines. The company's line of scroll compressor models are suited for demanding commercial refrigeration applications and consist primarily of reciprocating and rotary designs. Tecumseh sells its products to OEMs and aftermarket distributors in more than 100 countries worldwide, with 80% of its sales generated outside of the US. It markets its products under brand names that include Celseon, L'Unité Hermétique, Masterflux, Silensys, and Vector.

Tecumseh Products Company manufactures compressors for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, gasoline engines and automobile transmissions, and pumps and pumping equipment for industrial, commercial, and agricultural use. The second largest domestic manufacturer of engines for small tractors, snow blowers, and lawn mowers, the company is best known for its compressors, machines that compress refrigerants in air conditioners and refrigerators. The town of Tecumseh, Michigan, in which the company is headquartered, has since become known as the "Refrigeration Capital of the World."

An early 1990s public offering brought in new capital while allowing the founding Herrick family to retain control. The company has since moved to establish manufacturing hubs in Brazil and India while cutting back on U.S. production. Tecumseh has acquired some suppliers and is attempting to make its brand more visible to consumers and contractors.

Tecumseh Products was founded by Ray W. Herrick, a master toolmaker who came to prominence in the 1920s in Michigan's growing auto industry. Herrick's reputation as a knowledgeable and highly skilled toolmaker led to his rapid advancement in the industry. He was given supervisory positions and became a friend and adviser to influential inventors and industrialists such as Henry Ford, Harvey Firestone, and Thomas Edison. In 1928 Herrick was asked to help turn around the struggling Alamo Engine Company in the southeastern Michigan town of Hillsdale, where he served until 1933 as factory manager and eventually as director of sales and production. The company continued to decline, however, and during this time Herrick and a local toolmaker named C.F. (Bill) Sage decided to launch a business of their own, incorporating as Hillsdale Machine & Tool Company in 1930.

The Hillsdale company manufactured high-quality automobile and electric refrigerator parts, as well as small tools and mechanical novelties. Also handling orders that Alamo could not fill, the Hillsdale company went from grossing $26,000 in sales during its first year of operation to $284,000 by 1933. Initially, two-thirds of the company's stock was owned by Sage and his wife, while Herrick owned the remaining third. By 1933, however, Herrick bought out most of their interest and gained control of the company.

Competition in the manufactured parts industry was fierce in 1933, and Hillsdale soon sought larger production facilities. When Alamo went into receivership that year, Herrick leased its plant for one year, hoping to purchase it at the end of the term. The rent paid to Alamo's receivers, however, cut into the Hillsdale company's profits. Furthermore, the Hillsdale company had been founded during the height of the Great Depression, and these early years were characterized by escalating debt and inadequate cash flow. By 1934, Herrick's company was close to bankruptcy.

That year, however, as a result of a concerted effort by Herrick, the Ford Motor Company, private investors, and the city of Tecumseh--located about 60 miles southwest of Detroit--Hillsdale Tool & Machine Company managed to raise a little more than $12,000, with which it acquired a 30,000-square-foot abandoned facility in Tecumseh. Changing the company's name to Tecumseh Products, Herrick had the building renovated, borrowed the necessary machinery, and soon began the mass production of automotive and refrigerator parts. The following year the company gained much needed cash flow leverage when Henry Ford helped Herrick secure a line of credit with a Detroit bank.

In 1936 Tecumseh Products began to focus on manufacturing the product on which its reputation would be built: the hermetically sealed refrigeration compressor. Five years earlier, Herrick had been approached by Frank Smith, an engineer interested in selling Herrick his compressor designs. At that time, Herrick had employed Smith as a machinist, agreeing to consider the prototypes that Smith was developing. Over the next few years, engineers Curtis Brown and Jens Touborg joined Smith, and the three eventually formed an engineering business known as Tresco. Tresco worked closely with Tecumseh Products, providing Herrick with designs for inexpensive and reliable refrigeration compressors that rivaled those of the major manufacturers. By the end of the 1930s, Tecumseh Products was producing more than 100,000 of these compressors a year.

At the onset of World War II, Herrick shifted the focus of Tecumseh Products to the manufacture of defense materials. The company continued to produce compressors, which had applications in military equipment, while also turning out anti-aircraft projectile casings and precision parts for aircraft engines. By 1942, Tecumseh was mainly producing 40-millimeter shell casings, which it supplied to the U.S. Navy. In April of that year the company received the Navy E award for excellence for its contributions to the war effort; it received several similar awards before the war ended.

In 1945 Herrick's son, Kenneth G. Herrick, returned from the war and went to work for Tecumseh Products as the company resumed its focus on the production of compressors. During this time, competition in the industry intensified, with postwar demand for electric appliances, especially refrigerators, rising dramatically. Becoming known for the high quality of its compressors, as well as for their timely delivery, Tecumseh Products soon emerged as an industry leader. In 1947 a Tecumseh Products compressor was featured in the first window unit air conditioner for the home. By 1950, Tecumseh's sales reached $72 million, and the company was producing more than two million compressors a year.

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s Tecumseh Products sought to expand. First it increased its production capacity with the 1950 and 1952 purchases of Universal Cooler Corp. in Marion, Ohio, and the Acklin Stamping Company of Toledo, respectively. Also involved in finding new uses for its products, the company marketed an air conditioning compressor for automobiles in 1953. The following year, Tecumseh's sales reached $124 million, and in 1955 Herrick is reported to have paid nearly $5 million to purchase Tresco, the engineering business founded by Smith, Brown, and Touborg. At this time, Herrick brought Joseph E. Layton in from International Harvester to serve Tecumseh Products as president and chief executive officer. Herrick remained the company's chairperson.

Purchasing two Wisconsin companies in 1956 and 1957--the Lauson Engine Company of New Holstein and Power Products of Grafton--Tecumseh Products claimed two new divisions designated for the production of gasoline engines. These two acquisitions were provided with new, modern equipment and tools in order to begin production of compact, lightweight engines suitable for use in lawn and garden machinery. Also during this time the company began to establish licensees abroad, planning to one day market its products worldwide.

In 1960 Tecumseh Products of Canada, Ltd. was formed as a sales distribution center for compressors manufactured in the United States. This facility was later expanded into a production facility to handle demand for compressors in Canada. Over the next decade the company acquired the Diecast Division of Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin, and the Peerless Gear & Machine Company, which it designated as a separate division and provided with a new plant to manufacture transaxles, transmissions, and differentials for lawn and garden equipment. Furthermore, the company set up research and development laboratories at Purdue University and in Ann Arbor, Michigan, to support its divisions, employing scientists in the fields of chemistry and metallurgy, as well as mechanical and electrical engineers.

In 1964 Layton died unexpectedly, and William Hazelwood, a divisional vice-president, was named president of Tecumseh Products. Hazelwood remained in this position until 1966 when the 76-year-old Herrick gave up the chairmanship and, retaining a position for himself as vice-chairman, named his son Kenneth as president. Four years later Kenneth Herrick's son Todd came to work for Tecumseh Products. Kenneth ascended to chairman and CEO, and William MacBeth was named president. By this time the company had manufactured more than 100 million compressors and 25 million small engines.

In 1973 Ray Herrick died. Under Kenneth Herrick, Tecumseh Products built compressor and engine plants in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, while continuing to add to its product line. For example, the company acquired M.P. Pumps, Inc., of Detroit, which produced pumps used in agricultural, industrial, and marine environments. Submersible pumps, used as sump pumps and in large cooling systems, were introduced in 1980, with the company's purchase of the Little Giant Pump Company in Oklahoma.

Tecumseh Products sought to become an international company in the 1980s, and, over the next ten years, foreign sales, both from exports and through European acquisitions, rose to 15 percent of the company's total sales revenues. In 1981 Tecumseh Products entered into a joint venture with the Italian Fiat Settori Componenti, which resulted in the formation of Tecnamotor S.p.A., a manufacturer and marketer of engines for outdoor power equipment. The following year Tecumseh Products increased its holdings in the Sociade Intercontinental de Compressores Hermeticos SICOM, S.A. SICOM was based in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and served world markets through its manufacture of compressors. Tecumseh Products was further able to form a strong European interest through a 1985 joint venture with L'Unite Hermetique S.A. in Paris, a compressor manufacturer and exporter that Tecumseh Products eventually acquired as a subsidiary. The company's expansion into the international market had mixed results. It gained market share and enjoyed financial success, particularly in the engine sales of Tecnamotor, of which it acquired 100 percent ownership in 1989. This new subsidiary went on to become the largest engine manufacturer of its kind in Europe. Nevertheless, the company experienced a sharp decline in earnings during the late 1980s, which it attributed to the undervalued American dollar and delays in new product development.

In the United States, foreign competition in the production of refrigeration components intensified during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Tecumseh Products, though, continued to experience growth. In 1987 the company introduced a new line of air conditioning compressors for residential use, designed to be both quieter and more energy efficient in compliance with the federal government's National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. In 1989 air conditioning compressors were bolstered by a nationwide heat wave, and the company's net income rose to $82 million, up from $70 million the year before.

The company's interest in some foreign markets, however, suffered due to political instabilities during this time, particularly in China, where compressor sales fell almost to zero during the Tiananmen Square riots, as well as in the Middle East, where export sales were threatened by the Persian Gulf War. In 1992 Tecumseh was given an E Star award by the U.S. Department of Commerce for its commitment to international markets during these difficult times.

As Tecumseh Products entered the 1990s, it featured a broad range of products in several divisions. Refrigeration products, which accounted for more than half of its total sales, included compressors sold to the manufacturers of home cooling systems and appliances, water coolers, vending machines, and refrigerated display cases. Engine products mainly featured aluminum diecast engines of 2 to 12 horsepower used in machinery for both home lawn maintenance and farming. Power train products included transmissions, transaxles, and differentials produced for lawn and garden equipment as well as for recreational vehicles. The pump products division featured a variety of pumps made from cast iron, aluminum, stainless steel, or brass, capable of pumping up to 300 gallons per minute, while the company's submersible pumps division produced pumps for use in clothes washers and carpet cleaners as well as kidney dialysis machines.

In 1992 the company faced a new series of federal regulations designed to protect the environment by imposing restrictions on compressor and engine emissions and banning altogether chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which were widely used in refrigeration. As the ban on CFCs neared implementation in the mid-1990s, Tecumseh Products began converting its compressors to operate on alternative refrigerants, which, the company asserted, were available but costly. Furthermore, in joint efforts with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Tecumseh Products researched possible improvements to the engine manufacturing process that would lead to less harmful emissions, and also developed new techniques for treating and disposing of contaminated sediments resulting from dangerous industrial wastes being dumped into rivers.

Financially, in March 1992 the stockholders of Tecumseh Products approved a proposal to reclassify its existing shares as voting Class B stock, while creating a new class of nonvoting Class A common stock. The stockholders were issued one share of the Class A stock for each share they already owned. At the time, Edward Wyatt observed in Barron's that "because 45% of the equity currently outstanding is owned by members of the founding Herrick family, the stock plan will allow them to retain their voting rights while effectively splitting the stock 2-for-1." He also observed that the new plan would probably induce analysts to follow the fortunes of Tecumseh Products more closely.

By this time the founding Herrick family had had four generations involved in Tecumseh's management. In 1994, CEO Todd Herrick told Financial World the credo of his grandfather that still guided the company: "We believe in God, we mind our business and we work like hell."

In the mid-1990s, Tecumseh had revenues of about $2 billion and 15,000 employees. The company was developing its versions of the new, energy-efficient scroll compressors that were beginning to replace traditional reciprocating compressors in the air conditioning industry.

Tecumseh opened a new plant in Georgia in 1995 and a 200,000-square-foot factory in Corinth, Mississippi, in 1997. The latter's initial product was an electric motor for air conditioner compressors that had previously been sourced in Singapore.

The company also was expanding abroad, entering a joint venture with the Shriram Group to set up a plant in Hyderabad, India. It later bought out its partner there and acquired a refrigerator compressor factory near New Delhi from Whirlpool of India.

The company began promoting its brand directly to consumers. It aired ads urging them to look for its motors when they bought snow throwers, a market in which Tecumseh held a lead over rival Briggs & Stratton Corp., which led the lawn mower market.

Sales were $1.65 billion in 2000. The company's three business segments were each profitable. Strong Brazilian operations saved the Compressor Business, while operations in India were affected by start-up costs and work stoppages. The Engine & Power Train Business had slowed after a Y2K-inspired run on generators the previous year. The smallest unit, the Pump Business, was growing on the popularity of water gardening and industrial sales. During the year, the company entered the residential wastewater collection, transfer, and disposal market through the purchase of the assets of Interon Corporation.

Tecumseh cut 900 jobs in a 2000 restructuring that closed a plant in Somerset, Kentucky. Another 600 were being cut at an Indian factory. The company was expanding its operations in Mississippi, however.

According to one report, Tecumseh controlled 20 percent of the world market for small engines. It was growing its business in Europe, where it was dominant, with a 25 percent market share. Europe made up nearly 40 percent of the world market and was expected to grow due to the opening of Eastern Europe. Tecumseh acquired its Czech carburetor supplier, Motoco, from Motor Jikov in May 2001. Tecumseh had other European operations, including joint ventures and a subsidiary in France.

Tecumseh's subsidiary in India, Tecumseh Products India Ltd. (TPIL), was starting to export to South Africa and West Asia. The Indian market itself was ripe for development, with relatively few owning refrigerators or air conditioners. Tecumseh's plants in India produced compressor components as well as completed units.

Tecumseh acquired a supplier of manufacturing software, Manufacturing Data Systems, Inc. (MDSI), in 2002. The next year, it bought FASCO Motors, Invensys PLC's electric motor operations, for $415 million. FASCO formed the basis of a new business segment, Electrical Components.

Company officials told Contracting Business that although Tecumseh had enjoyed a relatively low profile in the past, it was becoming more retail-oriented. It leveraged its expertise in compressors to products such as drinking water systems and cooling towers through its "Cool Products" line. Tecumseh's products were distributed through 130 distribution centers and 1,700 outlets in the United States. Tecumseh was phasing out its U.S. manufacturing due to price pressure from customers. The company managed net income of $10 million on sales of $1.9 billion in 2004.

Principal Subsidiaries

Evergy, Inc.; FASCO Australia Pty. Ltd.; FASCO Industries, Inc.; FASCO Motors, Ltd. (Thailand); Little Giant Pump Company; Masterflux; Manufacturing Data Systems, Inc.; Motoco a.s. (Czech Republic); M.P. Pumps, Inc.; Tecumotor/Evergy; Tecumseh do Brasil, Ltda.; Tecumseh Compressor Company; Tecumseh Europa, S.p.A. (Italy); Tecumseh France S.A.; Tecumseh Power Company; Tecumseh Products Company of Canada, Ltd.; Tecumseh Products India Ltd.; TMT Motoco, Ltd. (Brazil).

Principal Divisions

Compressors; Engines & Power Trains; Pumps; Electrical Components.