How to use


On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electrical , electrotechnical and mechanical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.


Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the
Under The Ice Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.
Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.
OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.


How to use the FREON12MUSEUM site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the right blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. If doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, reaching the bottom end of each page then click on the Older Post button.


- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the right blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, with clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.


- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

" In the world of 2000's , if we need a cold drink we might go to the refrigerator for a few ice cubes or if there is a fancy model of refrigerator available, then we might have ice water right on tap! Things weren’t always like this however, that is before modern refrigeration.

THE COOLING HISTORY
Chilling has been known for centuries as a preservative for
perishable foods. A preservative, which was only accessible in places, where people could obtain ice during the winter. In practice, ice from lakes and rivers were cut in blocks and stored in heavily insulated rooms or pits from which it was retrieved when needed for cooling.
By use of the mechanical refrigeration, cold production became easier, because the ice could now be manufactured artificially. Now ice factories popped up, where blocks of ice were produced in large-scale operations and delivered to dairies, from which the consumer could fetch ice. The ice was placed in an ice box at home in the kitchen in which it melted and cooled the contents. The principle sounds old-fashioned, but the method was actually used up until the mid-1900s.
Gradually it became possible to produce the refrigerator systems so relatively small that they could be moved to where the cold was to be used. This meant, for example, that a refrigerator system could be placed in the basement and from there the refrigerant was circulated to insulated cabinets placed in the apartments.
Danfoss supplied expansion valves to control the temperature in these refrigeration systems. The expansion valve was Danfoss’ first, largest, and most important product.

In the world of 1810 in Cuba, the ice for our iced drink would need to be imported from the New England states at more than 500 dollars per the ton – that’s a lot of 1810 money! Obviously ice is a very important thing if Boston, at the same time, exported approximately 65,000 tons of ice per year; this is before mechanical refrigeration. Ice traditionally has been very important not only in good drinks, but it has also been critical to hospitals. It is then appropriate that a doctor, Scottish Dr. John Gorrie, received the first patent for mechanical refrigeration in 1842 to help his feverish patients.

After the advent of mechanical refrigeration, the need for ice shipped from temperate climates began to drop10. By 1855 the man made ice was being used in breweries and meat plants, but the new ice machines weren’t without problems. First, the refrigerant of choice for the 19th century ice machine is ammonia, which has the drawbacks of being highly toxic, corrosive, and difficult to compress.

The net result is that the ice machines were massive (as big as a typical kitchen), steam powered (the best source of energy in the 19th century for large equipment – needing constant boiler attendance), required a lot of maintenance and were the source of industrial accidents. An alternative had to be found!

Chemists, on the job, made a technological breakthrough: Sulfur dioxide is compressed readily and has a good latent heat* of 25 kJ/mol

Chemists and physicists were able to put a kitchen sized version of the refrigerator on the market after World War One.


Unfortunately, sulfur dioxide isn’t the most pleasant refrigerant: Early refrigerators leaked and if they didn’t, sulfur dioxide is corrosive, so they soon would. Additionally, sulfur dioxide is noted for its odor.

These early refrigerants were just not satisfying the public: they wanted something that would not stink up the house, burn it down, or kill them outright! It is with this criterion in mind that Frigidaire Division of GM set out to come up with a solution. They appointed Robert McNary, Thomas Midgley and Albert Henne to the task of finding performing, inert refrigerants for use in the household. It is this team that discovered dichlorodifluoromethane as a refrigerant in 1928 ."

By the late 1930's the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of fully "hermetic" systems, in which the motor and compressor where sealed in a single steel dome, which was connected to the evaporator in a seamless, integrated design not requiring the services of a skilled, field, refrigeration mechanic. The fully hermetic design for the household cabinet refrigerator was the next evolutionary step towards improving performance, reliability and life expectancy, all of which would increase dramatically. Kelvinator made significant contribution to the development of hermetic system design, Kelvinator of Canada, Circa 1955

Technical Significance
The change in performance, reliability and life expectancy which accompanied the wing to hermetic design could scarcely be over estimated. The period of regular motor oiling, drive belt replacement and leaking compressors and tubing connectors was gone. The operating life expectancy of such systems was all of a sudden 20 years or more.

Many contemporary appliances would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components our deliberately designed to fail or manufactured with limited edition specificities.

.......The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny silly crap gadgets low price has faded from memory.....

Every OLD Refrigerator saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, Cool engineering, noises, moments of the past life which will never return again.........


Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !


©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Friday, August 10, 2012

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF FREON 12 REFRIGERANT (R-12).


As first my POST here at Under the Ice (http://freon12museum.blogspot.com/):


Thermodynamic Properties of Freon® 12 Refrigerant (R-12)

SI Units.

Dichlorodifluoromethane is an inert gas that has a long history acting as a refrigerant, allowing us to stay cool in the summer, and as a spray propellant for important consumer substances.  Dichlorodifluoromethane owes many of its desirable properties to its C-F bonds and synthesis involves organofluorine chemistry.  

Synonyms: dichlorodifluoromethane; algofrene type 2; arcton 12; arton 6; carbon dichloride difluoride; CF 12; CF 12(halocarbon) CFC 12; CFC-12; chladone 12; dichlorodifluoromethane (CCL2F2); dichlorodifluoromtheane (DOT French); dichlorodifluoromethane (DOT); diclorodifluorometano (DOT Spanish); difluorodichloromethane; dymel 12; electro-CF 12; eskimon 12; F 12; F 12 (halocarbon); F-12; FC 12; FCC 12; FWK 12; fluorocarbon 12; forane 12; freon 12; freon F-12; freon ® 12; frigen 12; frigen R12; fron 12; gas refrigerante R-12 (DOT Spanish); gaz refrigerant R-12 (DOT French); genetron 12; genetron ® 12; halon 122; halon ® 122; HC 12; isceon 122; isotron 12; khladon 12; ledon 12; methane, dichlorodifluoro-; propellant 12; R 12; R 12 (refrigerant); refrigerant 12; refrigerant gas R-12; refrigerant R 12; SDD 100; and ucon 12.

Regulatory Name: CFC-12, Dichlorodifluoromethane
Formula: CC12F2
DOT Label: Non-flammable Gas
CAS: 75-71-8
STCC: 4904516, 4904561
CHRIS: DCF
UN Number: 1028
Structure: (Black = Carbon, Yellow = Fluorine, Green = Chlorine)
Physical Properties: Colorless gas with a characteristic ether-like odor at >20% by volume.
MW: 120.914 g/mol
BP: -29.8°C
VP: 5.7 atm
MP: -158°C

Tables of  the  thermodynamic properties of R-12 have been developed and are presented here.
This information is based on values calculated using the NIST REFPROP Database (McLinden, M.O., Klein,
S.A., Lemmon, E.W., and Peskin,A.P., NIST Standard Reference Database 23, NIST thermodynamic
and transport properties of refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures – REFPROP version 6.01,
Standard Reference Data Program, National Institute of Standards and
Technology, 1998). 
Units
P = Pressure in kPa. Absolute
T = Temperature in Celcius
Vf = Fluid (liquid) specific volume in cubic meters per kilogram
Vg = Vapour (gas) specific volume in cubic meters per kilogram
df and dg = Fluid and Vapour (respectively) densities in kilograms per cubic meter 
H = Enthalpy (kJ/kg)
S = Entropy (kJ/kg.K)
Physical Properties Chemical Formula CCl2F2
Molecular mass 120.91
Boiling Point -29.75°C At one atmosphere
Critical Temperature 111.97°C
Critical Pressure 4136 kPa
Critical Density 565.0 kg/m3
Critical Volume 0.0018 m3/kg

















In 1987, the Montreal Protocol, an international environmental agreement to reduce and phase out
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), catapulted the world’s refrigerator makers from a slow life that for many
decades had seen no major product innovation into one where they would be forced to either innovate
within an extremely short time period and engage in major technical development or else quit their
industry.
CFCs were believed to be major depleters of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, causing increased skin
cancer and global warming. Since refrigerators depended on them as coolants and as blowing agents used
in the production of foam insulation, the stipulations of the Montreal Protocol, which initially required
a CFC ban by the year 2000, then by 1995, were a massive threat to the refrigerator industry.
The Montreal Protocol was not a law by itself, it merely required its signatory countries to enact
legislation requiring the phaseout of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances at the latest by the date
it stipulated. In most cases the regulation that was subsequently enacted by the individual countries
followed the deadline recommended in the protocol. Germany was the only nation to require an earlier
phaseout date, forcing its refrigerator industry to search and find even faster a safe substitute for CFCs,
but providing it at the same time with an opportunity to gain a first mover advantage over foreign
competing nations.Any CFC substitute that was researched had to be not only in compliance with the stipulations set forth
by the Montreal Protocol, but also be at least as energy efficient, be safe to the user, and be as
economical as possible. Energy efficiency was particularly important, because many countries either had
energy efficiency laws (as was the case in the U.S.) or very demanding customers (as was the case in
Germany) which provided pressure to offer only energy efficient appliances. Safety was also an important
concern.
Many countries, including the U.S. and European countries, had laws regulating appliance
safety.

 By the early 1990s it had become evident that there were two major technological avenues that could be
followed to comply with the Montreal Protocol.One involved the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as
coolants and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents for insulating foams. HFCS were in
compliance with the Montreal Protocol and thought to be safe to the refrigerator’s user. However, they
were slightly less energy efficient - a disadvantage that could be offset by small changes to the
refrigerators design. They were also more expensive than CFCs, causing in Germany an average increase
in refrigerator prices by some 5 % to 8 % . Their major drawback was that, while not dangerous to the
earth’s ozone layer. they were a powerful greenhouse gas that was thought to contribute to global
warming and climate change. There was no regulation on HFCs, but the slight risk that they might be
regulated Sometime in the future meant that refrigerator makers which focused on HFCs risked focusing
on a transitory solution.

 HCFCS were an even riskier substitute - from an environmental as well as from a competitive point of
view. Refrigerator insulation foams blown with HCFCs were economical, provided sufficient energy
efficiency and posed no safety risk. However, HCFCs contributed to global warming and posed a risk
to the ozone layer. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol required their phaseout by the year 2020.
Thus, manufacturers developing HCFC-based insulation foams followed a dead end; they could be sure
to be forced once again to convert their production to a new technology in the foreseeable future.
The Refrigerator Industry
By the early 1990s it had become evident that there were two major technological avenues that could be
followed to comply with the Montreal Protocol.One involved the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as
coolants and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents for insulating foams. HFCS were in
compliance with the Montreal Protocol and thought to be safe to the refrigerator’s user. However, they
were slightly less energy efficient - a disadvantage that could be offset by small changes to the
refrigerators design. They were also more expensive than CFCs, causing in Germany an average increase
in refrigerator prices by some 5 % to 8 % . Their major drawback was that, while not dangerous to the
earth’s ozone layer. they were a powerful greenhouse gas that was thought to contribute to global
warming and climate change. There was no regulation on HFCs, but the slight risk that they might be
regulated Sometime in the future meant that refrigerator makers which focused on HFCs risked focusing
on a transitory solution.
The other major technological route to follow besides employing HFCs and HCFCs involved the use of
hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons, such as propanes, butanes, isobutanes. or pentanes, could be used both
as refrigerants and as blowing agents for polystyrene insulating foams. They were environmentally
benign, could easily be obtained all over the world, and were very cheap. Theoretically hydrocarbons
provided better energy efficiency than HFCs and HCFCs, although practically hydrocarbon-blown
insulations were slightly less efficient, requiring somewhat thicker insulations. Hydrocarbons were
explosive and thus represented a certain safety risk during refrigerator production as well as during
refrigerator usage, but this risk could be minimized to acceptable levels by introducing suitable safety
equipment. Like HFC- and HCFC-based systems, refrigerators employing hydrocarbons cost some 5%
to 8% more than CFC-based refrigerators. Unlike HFC- and HCFC-based systems, they did not pose

 any environmental risks and thus were certain never to be banned for environmental reasons, rendering
research efforts and production equipment obsolete.
By early 1994, most refrigerator makers in the world were focusing on the HFC/HCFC alternative with
all its environmental risks. The only exception was Germany, where, after a sometimes agonizing
struggle to decide which technological route to choose, most refrigerator makers had decided to adopt
the hydrocarbon route which did not pose any environmental risks and with further research and
experience was likely to be as cost-efficient as the HFC/HCFC route. How was it possible that the
German refrigerator industry, a highly competitive industry representing 11.1% of the world’s
refrigerator production and 13.4% of the world’s exports of refrigerators, had chosen a technological
route that was difficult from that chosen by the rest of the world?
There were several reasons, among them stricter and earlier regulation, which had sensitized producers
and consumers to the issue -- a very demanding and environmentally conscious home market -- as well
as a chance event in the form of a pressure campaign by an environmental group that had hit precisely
at the right time and at the right place.
The first hydrogen-based refrigerator had been built in Germany by the small East German manufacturer
Foron after the environmental pressure group Greenpeace had acquainted it with the technology and
awarded it a small $15,000 development contract. Greenpeace also conducted a publicity campaign that
prompted a large number of environmentally conscious Germans to place orders for the newly developed
refrigerator. The extraordinary success of the campaign convinced not only Foron that the hydrocarbon-
technology had real market potential, but also its West German competitors, who had initially developed
HFC/HCFC-based refrigerators.
Subsequently, one competitor after another announced similar
hydrocarbon-based refrigerators.

 

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