How to use

On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electrical , electrotechnical and mechanical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .
There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the
Under The Ice Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.
Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.
OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the FREON12MUSEUM site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the right blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. If doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, reaching the bottom end of each page then click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the right blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, with clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

" In the world of 2000's , if we need a cold drink we might go to the refrigerator for a few ice cubes or if there is a fancy model of refrigerator available, then we might have ice water right on tap! Things weren’t always like this however, that is before modern refrigeration.

Chilling has been known for centuries as a preservative for
perishable foods. A preservative, which was only accessible in places, where people could obtain ice during the winter. In practice, ice from lakes and rivers were cut in blocks and stored in heavily insulated rooms or pits from which it was retrieved when needed for cooling.
By use of the mechanical refrigeration, cold production became easier, because the ice could now be manufactured artificially. Now ice factories popped up, where blocks of ice were produced in large-scale operations and delivered to dairies, from which the consumer could fetch ice. The ice was placed in an ice box at home in the kitchen in which it melted and cooled the contents. The principle sounds old-fashioned, but the method was actually used up until the mid-1900s.
Gradually it became possible to produce the refrigerator systems so relatively small that they could be moved to where the cold was to be used. This meant, for example, that a refrigerator system could be placed in the basement and from there the refrigerant was circulated to insulated cabinets placed in the apartments.
Danfoss supplied expansion valves to control the temperature in these refrigeration systems. The expansion valve was Danfoss’ first, largest, and most important product.

In the world of 1810 in Cuba, the ice for our iced drink would need to be imported from the New England states at more than 500 dollars per the ton – that’s a lot of 1810 money! Obviously ice is a very important thing if Boston, at the same time, exported approximately 65,000 tons of ice per year; this is before mechanical refrigeration. Ice traditionally has been very important not only in good drinks, but it has also been critical to hospitals. It is then appropriate that a doctor, Scottish Dr. John Gorrie, received the first patent for mechanical refrigeration in 1842 to help his feverish patients.

After the advent of mechanical refrigeration, the need for ice shipped from temperate climates began to drop10. By 1855 the man made ice was being used in breweries and meat plants, but the new ice machines weren’t without problems. First, the refrigerant of choice for the 19th century ice machine is ammonia, which has the drawbacks of being highly toxic, corrosive, and difficult to compress.

The net result is that the ice machines were massive (as big as a typical kitchen), steam powered (the best source of energy in the 19th century for large equipment – needing constant boiler attendance), required a lot of maintenance and were the source of industrial accidents. An alternative had to be found!

Chemists, on the job, made a technological breakthrough: Sulfur dioxide is compressed readily and has a good latent heat* of 25 kJ/mol

Chemists and physicists were able to put a kitchen sized version of the refrigerator on the market after World War One.

Unfortunately, sulfur dioxide isn’t the most pleasant refrigerant: Early refrigerators leaked and if they didn’t, sulfur dioxide is corrosive, so they soon would. Additionally, sulfur dioxide is noted for its odor.

These early refrigerants were just not satisfying the public: they wanted something that would not stink up the house, burn it down, or kill them outright! It is with this criterion in mind that Frigidaire Division of GM set out to come up with a solution. They appointed Robert McNary, Thomas Midgley and Albert Henne to the task of finding performing, inert refrigerants for use in the household. It is this team that discovered dichlorodifluoromethane as a refrigerant in 1928 ."

By the late 1930's the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of fully "hermetic" systems, in which the motor and compressor where sealed in a single steel dome, which was connected to the evaporator in a seamless, integrated design not requiring the services of a skilled, field, refrigeration mechanic. The fully hermetic design for the household cabinet refrigerator was the next evolutionary step towards improving performance, reliability and life expectancy, all of which would increase dramatically. Kelvinator made significant contribution to the development of hermetic system design, Kelvinator of Canada, Circa 1955

Technical Significance
The change in performance, reliability and life expectancy which accompanied the wing to hermetic design could scarcely be over estimated. The period of regular motor oiling, drive belt replacement and leaking compressors and tubing connectors was gone. The operating life expectancy of such systems was all of a sudden 20 years or more.

Many contemporary appliances would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components our deliberately designed to fail or manufactured with limited edition specificities.

.......The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny silly crap gadgets low price has faded from memory.....

Every OLD Refrigerator saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, Cool engineering, noises, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Tuesday, August 21, 2012


 Refrigerator insulation material today (FLAMMABLE):

 Most relevant foam selection criteria k-Values and densities of different blowing agents:

The 2 most important criteria of selecting foam material are the thermal conductivity (k-value) and the density: The lower the thermal conductivity is the less energy will be lost,
the less density is reached, the less material is needed to fill a cavity, the less it costs.

The following table contain compared test data under production conditions as made by foaming material producers (BASF-Elastogran, Huntman-I.C.I, Bayer and Dow), by some refrigerant producers, for HFC-365mfc (Solvay, licence of Bayer) and HFC-245a (Honeywell) by blowing agent producers. The overall density have a range: the lower range values can be reached in simpler cabinet geometry foamed in bath position and if the filling hole is centralised on the bottom point (so called top flow technology) while the upper overall density value is reached by longer foam rising ways filled from compressor compartment side or top plate side. Only in few single case their were deviations with worse values outside the given range as a result of not optimal production or material conditions. We did not take into consideration special controlled “laboratory” conditions which often could reach 1-2 mW/m*K better k-values as to be realised in running production even with strict quality control on material, machines and process. We estimate that the HCF-365mfc and HCF-245fa values could be improved in the future by 1-1.5mW/m*K similar to the values reached by other blowing agents after 2-3 years of research when the systems will be optimised.

 ² At –20°C the k-values are often higher than at +20°C for low boiling materials. Lowest values are often reached in the range of 15-20°C. To receive a more realistic k-value we selected the comparison value on 10°C as average value because freezers are inside <-20°C, representing normally 33% of refrigeration volume, refrigerator inside 3-8°C and environment temperature for both are 18-38°C for subtropical class, up to 18-43°C
for tropical class. Because of a condensation effect for lower temperatures underneath 0°C Cyclopentane foam have significant lower K-values than CFC-11.
³ see remarks to changes of standardisation of GWP 4 Old IPCC 1996 value, which probably have to be creased by 20% to make in comparable with WMO 1999
values 5 The value of CO2 can also be 0 id CO2 is taken from air and not by burning of fossil Hydrocarbon.
The data base of HFC-245fa is incomplete and on HFC-365mfa still very small. We did not mentioned anymore HCFC-123 which did not pass the health test (PAFT) as well as HFC-152a, because relevant research data were not yet presented or not known yet by us.
A Handicap for the replacement of HCFC-141b by HFC-245 or HFC-365mfa is the high prices of these 2 blowing agents. US$ 9,00 per kg HFC-245fa and US$ 5,50 for HFC-365mfa is much more expensive than Cyclopentane.

Besides environmental aspects and density, which means cost of foam per refrigerator (the lower density can be reached the cheaper is the foam), an effective production is a decisive criterion for the economic efficiency of PU foams. The production efficiency are influenced by - foam material characteristics , specially the demoulding behaviour and flow behaviour, and also by - the  used technology: foaming machines, the supporting jigs, opening and closing speed, heating, mixing heads,
cabinet carriage and their movement speed, which we will analyse separately. First we will concentrate of the foam material itself and after reanalysing many articles and research reports in this field we decided to cite an article of Udo Rotermund, Gottfried Knorr, Holger Seifert, Werner Wiegmann: Technical Comparison of Various Blowing Agents with Different PU-Systems set for the Appliances Industry, Elastogran (BASF), 2000.


The present invention pertains to rigid insulating foams prepared from the reaction of pentane blown methylene diphenylene diisocyanates and its higher ring content oligomers and polyols which exhibit low flammability while at the same time possessing low thermal conductivities. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam systems employing a brominated halocarbon in addition to an aliphatic hydrocarbon as a blowing agent.


Since the widespread adoption of the Montreal Protocol, the urethane industry has concentrated efforts directed to eliminating the use of chlorofluorocarbons, such as the widely used CFC-11, from polyurethane foam formulations of all types. The use of HCFC's such as HCFC-22, monochlorodifluoromethane, which have lower ozone depletion potentials (ODP's) has been promoted as an interim solution. However, HCFC-22, an HCFC of choice, is a gas at room temperature with poor system solubility, and thus extraordinary processing equipment must be used, including in some cases, pressurized day tanks.
Water has been utilized for many years in polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam systems. However, the carbon dioxide generated by the water/isocyanate reaction is markedly inferior to the CFCs and HCFCs with respect to preparing rigid foams having low K-factors. To overcome this deficiency, it has been suggested to include perfluorocarbons (PFAs) in a water blown formulations. However PFAs are quite expensive despite being used in modest amounts; have exceptionally poor system solubility, often requiring emulsification rather than solution; and moreover offer only a modest advantage over all-water-blown systems.
Low-boiling aliphatic hydrocarbons have been suggested as blowing agents for polymeric foams, and are widely used in the expandable and expanded polystyrene industry. However, they have been eschewed by the polyurethane industry due to the flammability of the foams produced through their use, as well as the high K-factors obtained in rigid foams, making them undesirable for use in many applications.

 Ageing of foam. 
But we also should not look only on initial values after manufacturing, as it is part of the
refrigerator standards, but on values over the full lifetime of a refrigerator. For example CFC-11 and HCFC-141b used as blowing agent in foam produce foam with excellent initial k-values in the range of 17 mW/m*K (CFC-11) respective 17.5 mW/m*K (HCFC-141b); but after 310 days (CFC-11) respective 280 days (HCFC-141b) because of faster diffusion of this small molecules out of the cellular foam matrix, their k-values of foam became higher, that means lower insulating, as if larger blowing agent molecules, like Cyclopentane (18 mW/m*K) or HFC-365mfc (18 mW/m*K; not yet optimised). The speed of ageing depends from

- the temperatures the foam is exposed during life,
- the skin of foam (in the refrigerator one side in direction of cold storage are plastic like Polystyrene or ABS and the other side is quite good sealing steel),
-the size of molecule,
-the partial vapour pressure, which in case of Cyclopentane is slightly reduced because of partial solubility
inside the foam matrix.

After 6-9 years the k-values of foam produced with different blowing agents will become similar to each other in the range of 27-28 kW/m*K, that is the value after complete diffusion of the blowing agent, so that the foam matrix is only filled by air. Therefore the discussion which blowing agent are the best should not to be taken too serious if the k-values are deviating only by 1kW/m*K - except under ODP, health aspect and bid differences of GWP values.
Values like:
- the cabinet constant (= reverse heat leakage), that represents the energy needed to maintain the temperature difference of a cold storage to its environment,
- the pull down energy (this is a question of the efficiency of the cooling circuit and has nothing to do with the insulation), and last not least

- energy consumption of the refrigerator, depending on insulation, design and cooling circuit construction) are the most important factor of global warming to be considered in the refrigeration sector.

At moment refrigerator companies in USA and Japan are using HCFC-141b, in Europe nearly only Cyclopentane and Cyclopentane mixtures and in the rest of the world mainly Cyclopentane.

Modern (crap) fridges often contain insulating foam that is blown with hydrocarbon (HC)
blowing agents, usually cyclopentane but may also include n-pentane and i-pentane,
collectively referred to in this report as “pentane”. These hydrocarbon blowing agents
have replaced the use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbon
(HCFC)blowing agents (ozone depleting substances (ODS)) and Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) blowing agents (gases with high global warming potential (GWP)). HC blowing agents are not ODS and do not have a high GWP but pose greater fire risk due to their high flammability.
Permitted fridge treatment facilities accept fridges (those containing CFC/HCFC/HFC/HC refrigerants and blowing agents) and process them to remove the oil and capture the refrigerant from the cooling circuit. Once this is done, in accordance with the WEEE Directive and associated Defra BATRRT guidance4, the degassed CFC, HCFC and HFC fridge carcasses must be treated in dedicated plant, which will ensure that the blowing agent is collected and sent for destruction (e.g.incineration).

Pentane blowing agents that are used in the insulating foam of fridges have the R11
(highly flammable) risk phrase (note: term not to be confused with “R11” CFC
refrigerant). The pentane is entrained within the foam and therefore the material
should be assessed for flammability as a solid in accordance with Test Method A.10
Flammability (Solids). If the foam is assessed as being hazardous (i.e. under the
R11 risk phrase) then it would be assigned the H3A (highly flammable) hazardous
property and appliances that contain it as a component would be classified
hazardous waste under European Waste Code 16 02 13* (discarded equipment
containing hazardous components other than those mentioned in 16 02 09 to 16 02
12) or 20 01 35* (discarded electrical and electronic equipment other than those
mentioned in 20 01 21 and 20 01 23 containing hazardous components).

The GC MS analysis of the blowing agent(s) contained in the foam panels confirmed
that each panel contained a hydrocarbon blowing agent, as had been marked on the
exterior of the appliances (see Appendix 1). The results also confirmed that
cyclopentane was the principal hydrocarbon blowing agent used in the foam panels.
However, 9 foam panels also contained iso-pentane as a minor constituent (with
cyclopentane identified as the main constituent), and 2 panels contained iso-pentane
as the main constituent.

Burning rates:

All foam samples burned the required distance (100mm) in a time under 20 seconds.
The slowest burn rate recorded was 19.3 seconds (test sample 3, fridge 1) and the
fastest recorded was 2.8 seconds (test sample 1, fridge 8). The average burning rate
time across all 60 samples was 9.4 seconds.
The fastest and slowest burning samples both contained cyclopentane blowing
agent. The type of hydrocarbon blowing agent did not appear to have a significant
effect on the burning rate of the foam samples, with the average burning rate
between the 3 types (i.e. those containing a) cyclopentane, b) cyclopentane and iso-
pentane (as minor constituent) and c) iso-pentane (as main constituent)) being 9.7,
9.3 and 9.2 seconds respectively. Therefore, variability in burning rate between
samples was possibly due to variability in hydrocarbon blowing agent content
(quantity), rather than type.

When assessing waste electrical equipment, such as fridges, it is the presence or
absence of hazardous components that determines if they are classed as hazardous
waste or not. Insulation foam that has been blown with a hydrocarbon blowing agent
(pentane) has been demonstrated to posses the hazardous property H3A (highly
flammable). This means it is a hazardous component and would, amongst other
components, make a fridge a hazardous waste.

IT was concluded that all fridge panels tested should be considered as highly
flammable solid materials. As a result of this, we believe that all fridge insulation
foam produced using a hydrocarbon blowing agent should be considered highly
flammable, unless tested and demonstrated otherwise.


I'VE ALWAYS SAID.............FREON12 (R12) FOREVER  (AT LEAST NOT FLAMMABLE).................

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